Issue #27 in 2020 year, 59-88

Anarchists in the Spanish government (November 1936 - May 1937)

A. Shubin

The article is devoted to a unique historical episode – the participation of anarchists in the Spanish government in 1936-1937. The article reveals the circumstances that led to such a change in the policy of the state - the Spanish Republic, and the anarcho-syndicalist National confederation of labor (CNT), which recently denied the possibility of joining state structures. However, in the context of the revolution and civil war, when the CNT began to control a significant part of the economy and important territories, the question arose whether they could fight the francoists and the Republic at the same time, or whether they should ally with the democrats against fascism. This alliance was tested in Catalonia, after which the CNT joined the government of the broad anti-fascist coalition of F. Largo Caballero in November 1936. In this government, CNT representatives were responsible for industry, trade, social policy, health care, and justice. As shown in the article, in these areas they strengthened the boundaries of collectivization achieved by the revolution, and strengthened the institutions of the social state. As long as the representatives of the CNT remained in the government, the opponents of the syndicalist social transformation could not launch an offensive against their results. After the clashes in Barcelona in may 1937 and the fall of the government of Largo Caballero, the anarchists refused to join the bloc of his opponents. After this, the positions of the CNT and the supporters of social transformation in the second half of 1936 were significantly weakened. 

Keywords:
Spanish civil war of 1936-1939, social revolution, Spanish Republic, National confederation of labor, Largo Caballero, Montseny, Garcia Ol-iver, Peiro, Lopez
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